Alien Invasive Species

Knysna has the dubious record of having a record tally of Alien Invasive Species.  Through this blog we endeavour to inform the public of the most prevalent species in the area.  If you have any  queries or are not certain about the Id of a suspected plant, give me a ring or email me and I will try to help.

Esther 072 4661781  email:

Invasive Alien Species prevalent in  Gardens, Roadsides, Waste places, Municipal Open Spaces and Environs of Knysna

Compiled by Esther Townsend April 2017, populating with images will take some time … please be patient. 



  Scientific Name Common Name Cat Category area
2 Acacia baileyana  Bailey’s wattle 3
3 Acacia cyclops Red eye 1b
6 Acacia elata Pepper tree wattle 1b
9 Acacia longifolia Long-leaved wattle 1b
10 Acacia mearnsii
Black wattle 2
11 Acacia melanoxylon Australian blackwood 2
13 Acacia podalyriifolia Pearl acacia 1b
15 Acacia saligna Port Jackson willow 1b
17 Acer buergerianum Chinese maple 3 Not listed in urban areas
18 Acer negundo Ash-leaved  maple 3 Sterile cultivars not listed
19 Agave Americana subsp. Americana var. Expansa Spreading century plant 3
21 Ageratina adenophora Crofton weed 1b
24 Ageratum houstonianum Mexican ageratum 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
29 Ailanthus altissima Tree of heaven 1b
33 Alisma plantago-aquatica Common water plantain 1b
35 Alpinia zerumbet Shell ginger 3
37 Anredera cordifolia Madeira vine 1b
38 Antigonon leptopus Coral creeper 1b
40 Ardisia crenata Coral berry 1b
43 Argemone ochroleuca White-flowered Mexican poppy 1b
44 Aristolochia elegans Dutchman’s pipe 1b
45 Arundo donax Giant reed, Spanish reed 1b
51 Azolla pinnata Mosquito fern 1b
54 Bauhinia purpurea Butterfly orchid tree 3
55 Bauhinia variegata Orchid tree 3
56 Berberis thunbergia Japanese barberry 3 Sterile cultivars not listed
58 Bryophyllum delagoense Chandelier plant 1b
59 Bryophyllum pinnatum Cathedral bells 1b
60 Bryophyllum proliferum Mother of millions 1b
61 Buddleja davidii Chinese sagewood 3 Sterile cultivars not listed
62 Buddleja madagascariensis Madagascar sagewood 3
63 Caesalpinia gilliesii Bird of paradise 1b
64 Callisia repens Creeping Inch Plant 1b
65 Callistemon rigidus Stiff leaved bottlebrush 1b
66 Callistemon viminalis Weeping bottlebrush 3
72 Canna indica Indian shot 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
73 Cardiospermum grandiflorum Balloon vine 1b
76 Casuarina cunninghamiana Beefwood 2
78 Catharanthus roseus Madagascar periwinkle 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
81 Centanthus ruber Red valerian 1b
84 Cereus hildmannianus Queen of the night 1b
87 Cestrum elegans Crimson cestrum 1b
88 Cestrum laevigatum Inkberry 1b
89 Cestrum parqui Chilean cestrum 1b
93 Cinnamomum camphorata Camphor tree 3
94 Cirsium vulgare Scotch thirsle 1b
95 Convolvulus arvensis Field bindweed 1b
96 Coreopsis lanceolata Tickseed 1a Sterile cultivars not listed


Cortaderia jubata

Cortaderia selloana

Purple Pampas grass

Pampas grass




Sterile cultivars not listed

99 Cotoneaster franchetii Cotoneaster 1b
100 Cotoneaster glaucophyllus Late cotoneaster 1b
102 Cotoneaster salicifolius Willow leaf showberry 1b
103 Cotoneaster simonsii Simon’s cotoneaster 1b
107 Cuscuta campestris Common dodder 1b
116 Datura ferox Large thorn apple 1b
118 Datura stramonium Common thorn apple 1b
120 Dolichandra unguis-cati Cat’s claw creeper 1b
121 Duchesnea indica Wild strawberry 1b
129 Eichhornia crassipes Water hyacinth 1b
132 Equisetum hyemale Rough horsetail 1a
133 Eriobotrya japonica Loquat 1b WCape & Forest Biome, not listed in urban WCape




Eucalyptus diversicolor

Eucalyptus grandis


Saligna gum

1b 1b) -Riparian areas, protected areas in terms of protected areas Act, or within a listed ecosystem.

Fynbos, Grassland, Albany thicket and Indian Ocean Coastal Belt biomes.

2)- plantations, woodlots, bee-forage areas, wind-rows and lining of avenues

Not listed within cultivated land that is at least 50m away from untransformed land, but excluding within any area in above

Not listed within 50m of the main house on a farm, excluding above

Not listed in urban areas for trees with a diameter of more than 400mm at 1000mm height at the time of publishing this notice, but excluding in (a) above

146 Fraxinus americana American ash 3
148 Furcraea foetida Mauritian hemp 1a
149 Genista monspessulana Montpellier broom 1a
150 Gleditsia triacanthos Honey locust 1b
152 Grevillea banksii Australian crimson oak 1b
153 Grevillea robusta Australian silver oak 3
154 Grevillea rosemarinifolia Rosemary grevillea 3
157 Hakea salicifolia Willow hakea 1b
158 Hakea sericea Silky hakea 1b
163 Hedera canariensis  subs. canariensis Canary ivy, Madeira ivy 3 Sterile cultivars not listed
164 Hedera helix subsp helix English ivy 3 Sterile cultivars not listed
166 Hedychium coronarium White ginger lily 1b
167 Hedychium flavescens Yellow ginger lily 1b
169 Homalanthus populifolius Bleeding heart tree 1b
170 Houttuynia cordata Chameleon plant 3
172 Hydrocleys numphoides Water poppy 1a
175 Hypericum perforatum St. John’s wort 2
178 Ipomoea indica Morning glory 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
179 Ipomoea purpurea Morning glory 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
180 Iris pseudacorus Yellow flag 1a
186 Lantana –all seed producing sp. Lantana 1b
188 Leptospermum laevigatum Australian myrtle 1b
190 Ligustrum japonicum Japanese wax leaf privet 1b
191 Ligustrum lucidem Chinese wax leaf privet 1b
192 Ligustrum ovalifolium Californian privet 1b
194 Ligustrum vulgare Common privet 1b
197 Linaria dalmatica Dalmatian loadflax 1b
200 Lonicera japonica Hall’s honeysuckle 3
201 Ludwigia peruviana Water primrose 1a
205 Malva dendromorpha Tree mallow 1b
210 Melaleuca quinquenervia Broadleaf paper bark 1b
211 Melia azedarach Seringa 3 1b outside urban areas
216 Morus alba Mulberry 3 Sterile cultivars not listed
218 Myoporum insulare Manatoka 3
219 Myoporum laetum New Zealand manatoka 3
226 Nasturtium officinale Watercress 2
227 Nephrolepis cordifolia Erect sword fern 1b
228 Nerium oleander Oleander 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
230 Nicandra physalodes Apple of Peru 1b
231 Nicotiana glauca Wild tobacco 1b
239 Opuntia ficus indica Sweet prickly pear 1b Spineless cultivars not listed
252 Paraserianthes lophanta Stink bean 1b
256 Passiflora caerulea Blue passion flower 1b
258 Passiflora tripartita Bananadilla 1b
261 Pauwlonia tomentosa Empress tree 1a
263 Pennisetum clandestinum Kikuyu grass 1b 1b In protected areas and wetlands in which it does not already occur, not listed elsewhere


Pennisetum setaceum

Pennisetum purpureum

Fountain grass

Elephant grass



Sterile hybrids not listed


267 Pereskia aculeata Barbados gooseberry 1b
268 Persicaria capitata Knotweed 1b
269 Phytolacca americana American pokeweed 1b
270 Phytolacca dioica Belhambra 3
271 Pinus elliotti Slash pine 2 Exempted for an existing plantation of sterile specimens
275 Pinus patula Patula pine 2 Exempted for an existing plantation
276 Pinus pinaster Cluster pine 2 2 for plantations and wind-rows

1b elsewhere

Existing plantations in Western Cape are exempted from undertaking a risk assessment in terms of section 71(2) of the Act prior to applying for a permit

277 Pinus radiata Montery pine 2 2 for plantations and wind-rows

1b elsewhere

Existing plantations in Western Cape are exempted from undertaking a risk assessment in terms of section 71(2) of the Act prior to applying for a permit

280 Pistia stratiotes Water lettuce 1b
282 Pittosporum undulatum Australian cheesewood 1b
283 Plectranthus barbatus Woolly plectranthus 1b
286 Pontederia cordata Pickerel weed 1b
287 Populus alba White poplar 2
292 Psidium cattleianum Strawberry guava 1b
297 Pyracantha angustifolia Yellow firethorn 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
298 Pyracantha coccinea Red firethorn 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
303 Ricinus communis Castor oil plant 2
305 Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust 1b
306 Rosa rubiginosa Eglantine rose 1b
309 Rubus flagellaris Bramble 1b
310 Rubus fruticosus European blackberry 1b
312 Rubus niveus Ceylon raspberry 1b
314 Rumex usambarensis East African dock 1b
320 Salvinia molesta Kariba weed 1b
322 Sambucus canadensis Canadian elder 1b
324 Sasa ramosa Dwarf yellow-striped bamboo 3
328 Schinus terebinthifolius Brazilian pepper tree 3
330 Senna didymobotrya Peanut butter cassia 1b
335 Sesbania punicea Red Sesbania 1b
339 Solanum mauritianum Bugweed 1b
340 Solanum pseudocapsicum Jerusalem cherry 1b
357 Tamarix ramosissima Pink tamarisk 1b
358 Tecoma stans Yellow bells 1b
360 Thevetia peruviana Yellow oleander 1b
361 Tipuana tipu Tipu tree 3
366 Tradescantia fluminensis Wandering Jew 1b
367 Tradescantia zebrina Wandering Jew 1b
371 Verbena bonariensis Purple top 1b
374 Vinca major Greater periwinkle 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
375 Vinca minor Lesser periwinkle 1b Sterile cultivars not listed