Alien Invasive Species in Knysna

Disclaimer: while every care has been taken in the preparation of the information contained herein, neither Gardening at Leisure or Admin of this website will be liable for any loss or damage arising out of or in connection with the information or any deficiencies in the information contained herein.
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Included in the list are some plants which are not listed in the Western Cape, however they are very common in many Knysna gardens and pose not only a toxicity threat but can become a garden escapee. 

When removing the plants  take care as  some of the alien invasive species are  poisonous, and some may cause extreme allergic reactions.  

Level 3 (life-threatening effects threshold)   Plants extremely toxic,   has been known to cause injury, permanent disability, and in some cases, death.

Level 2 (escape-impairment threshold)  Potentially very toxic,  depending on the level of exposure.

Level 1  (mild effects threshold) Pollen or perfume from this plant can cause respiratory problems. Irritant to skin or eyes from sap.              

 ALWAYS WEAR PROTECTIVE GEAR WHEN HANDLING POISONOUS PLANTS OR HERBICIDES.

Alien Invasive Species in Knysna’s Surrounding Areas, Open Areas, Forest Fringes, Roadsides, and Gardens

Nemba listing Scientific Name Common Name Cat. Toxic Level  Scope of exemptions in terms of Section. 71A(1)
2 Acacia baileyana Bailey’s wattle 3
3 Acacia cyclops Red Eye 1b
6 Acacia elata Pepper tree wattle 1b
9 Acacia longifolia Long-leaved wattle 1b
10 Acacia mearnsii Black wattle 2
11 Acacia melanoxylon Australian blackwood 2
13 Acacia podalyriifolia Pearl acacia 1b
15 Acacia saligna Port Jackson willow 1b
17 Acer buergerianum Chinese maple 3 Not listed in urban areas
18 Acer negundo Ash-leaved  maple 3 Sterile cultivars not listed
19 Agave Americana subsp. Americana var. Expansa Spreading century plant 3 1
21 Ageratina adenophora Crofton weed 1b 2
24 Ageratum houstonianum Mexican ageratum 1b 2 Sterile cultivars not listed
29 Ailanthus altissima Tree of heaven 1b 2
33 Alisma plantago-aquatica Common water plantain 1b
35 Alpinia zerumbet Shell ginger 3
37 Anredera cordifolia Madeira vine 1b 2
38 Antigonon leptopus Coral creeper 1b
40 Ardisia crenata Coral berry 1b 2
42 Argemone mexicana Yellow flowered Mexican poppy 1b 2
43 Argemone ochroleuca White flowered Mexican poppy 1b 2
44 Aristolochia elegans Dutchman’s pipe 1b
45 Arundo donax Giant reed, Spanish reed 1b
51 Azolla filiculoides Red water fern 1b
54 Bauhinia purpurea Butterfly orchid tree 3
55 Bauhinia variegata Orchid tree 3
56 Berberis thunbergia Japanese barberry 3  Sterile cultivars not listed
58 Bryophyllum delagoense Chandelier plant 1b 2
59 Bryophyllum pinnatum Cathedral bells 1b 2
60 Bryophyllum proliferum Mother of millions 1b 2
61 Buddleja davidii Chinese sagewood 3 Sterile cultivars not listed
62 Buddleja madagascariensis Madagascar sagewood 3 1
63 Caesalpinia gilliesii Bird of paradise 1b 2
64 Callisia repens Creeping Inch Plant 1b 2
65 Callistemon rigidus Stiff leaved bottlebrush 1b
66 Callistemon viminalis Weeping bottlebrush 3
72 Canna indica Indian shot 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
73 Cardiospermum grandiflorum Balloon vine 1b
76 Casuarina cunninghamiana Beefwood 2
78 Catharanthus roseus Madagascar periwinkle 1b 2 Sterile  Cultivars not listed
81 Centanthus ruber Red valerian 1b
84 Cereus hildmannianus Queen of the night 1b
87 Cestrum elegans Crimson cestrum 1b 1
88 Cestrum laevigatum Inkberry 1b 1
89 Cestrum parqui Chilean cestrum 1b 1
93 Cinnamomum camphorata Camphor tree 3 2
94 Cirsium vulgare Scotch thirsle 1b 2
95 Convolvulus arvensis Field bindweed 1b 2
96 Coreopsis lanceolata Tickseed 1a Sterile cultivars not listed
98 Cortaderia selloana Pampas grass 1b 1 Sterile cultivars not listed
99 Cotoneaster franchetii Cotoneaster 1b 2
101 Cotoneaster pannosus Silver leaf showberry 1b 2
107 Cuscuta campestris Common dodder 1b
116 Datura ferox Large thorn apple 1b 3
118 Datura stramonium Common thorn apple 1b 3
121 Duchesnea indica Wild Strawberry 1b 1
122 Duranta erecta Forget-me-not tree 1b 2
126

129

Echium plantagineum

Eichhornia crassipes

Patterson’s curse

Water hyacinth

1b

1b

2

 

132 Equisetum hyemale Rough horsetail 1a 2
133 Eriobotrya japonica Loquat 1b 1  

WC & forest biome, not listed in urban gardens

 

137 Eucalyptus diversicolor Karri 1b Applies to Eucalyptus: Exempted for existing plantations

1b) Riparian areas, protected areas in terms of protected areas Act, or within a listed ecosystem. Fynbos, Grassland, Albany thicket and Indian Ocean Coastal Belt biomes.2)- plantations, woodlots, bee-forage areas, wind-rows and lining of avenues

Not listed within cultivated land that is at least 50m away from untransformed land, but excluding within any area in above

Not listed within 50m of the main house on a farm, excluding above

Not listed in urban areas for trees with a diameter of more than 400mm at 1000mm height at the time of publishing this notice, but excluding in (a) above

138 Eucalyptus grandis Saligna gum 1b Exempted for existing plantations

1b) -Riparian areas, protected areas in terms of protected areas Act, or within a listed ecosystem.Fynbos, Grassland, Albany thicket and Indian Ocean Coastal Belt biomes.2)- plantations, woodlots, bee-forage areas, wind-rows and lining of avenues

Not listed within cultivated land that is at least 50m away from untransformed land, but excluding within any area in above

Not listed within 50m of the main house on a farm, excluding above

Not listed in urban areas for trees with a diameter of more than 400mm at 1000mm height at the time of publishing this notice, but excluding in (a) above

148 Furcraea foetida Mauritian hemp 1a 1
149 Genista monspessulana Montpellier broom 1b 1
150 Gleditsia triacanthos Honey locust 1b 1
152 Grevillea banksii Australian crimson oak 1b 1
153 Grevillea robusta Australian silver oak 3 1
157

158

Hakea salicifolia

Hakea sericea

Willow  hakea

Silky hakea

1b

1b

163 Hedera canariensis  subs. canariensis Canary ivy, Madeira ivy 3 2 Sterile cultivars not listed
164 Hedera helix subsp helix English Ivy 3 2 Sterile cultivars not listed
166 Hedychium coronarium White ginger lily 1b
167 Hedychium flavescens Yellow ginger lily 1b
168

169

Hedychium gardnerianum

Homalanthus populifolius

Kahili ginger lily

Bleeding heart tree

1b

1b

 

1

170 Houttuynia cordata Chameleon plant 3
172 Hydrocleys numphoides Water poppy 1a
174

175

Hypericum androsaemum

Hypericum perforatum

Tutsan

St. John’s wort

1b

2

2

2

176 Ipomoea alba Moon flower 1b
178 Ipomoea indica Morning glory 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
179 Ipomoea purpurea Morning glory 1b 2 Sterile cultivars not listed
180 Iris pseudacorus Yellow flag 1a 1
186 Lantana –all seed producing sp. Lantana 1b 3
188 Leptospermum laevigatum Australian myrtle 1b
190 Ligustrum japonicum Japanese wax-leaf privet 1b 2
191

192

Ligustrum lucidum

Ligustrum ovalifolium

Chinese wax-leaf privet

Californian privet

1b

1b

2

2

193

194

Ligustrum sinense

Ligustrum vulgare

Chinese privet

Common privet

1b

1b

2

2

197 Linaria vulgaris  Common toadflax 1b 1
200 Lonicera japonica Hall’s honeysuckle 3 1
201 Ludwigia peruviana Water primrose 1a
205 Malva dendromorpha Tree mallow 1b
210 Melaleuca quinquenervia Broadleaf paper bark 1b 1 National heritage trees
211 Melia azedarach Syringa 1b 3 3 in Urban areas
216 Morus alba Mulberry 3 Sterile cultivars not listed
218 Myoporum insulare Manatoka 3 2
219 Myoporum laetum New Zealand manatoka 3 2
220

221

226

Myoporum montanum

Myriophyllum aquaticum

Nasturtium officinale

Manatoka

Parrots feather

Watercress

3

1b

2

2

 

227 Nephrolepis cordifolia Erect sword fern 1b
228 Nerium oleander Oleander 1b 3
230 Nicandra physalodes Apple of Peru 1b 2
231 Nicotiana glauca Wild tobacco 1b 3
233

239

Nymphaea mexicana

Opuntia ficus indica

Yellow water lily

Sweet prickly pear

1b

1b

 

Spineless cultivars not listed

242

243

252

Opuntia microdasys

Opuntia monocantha

Paraserianthes lophanta

Bunny ears

Drooping prickly pear

Stink bean

1b

1b

1b

1

1

1

256 Passiflora caerulea Blue passion flower 1b 2
258 Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima Bananadilla 1b 2
261 Pauwlonia tomentosa Empress tree 1a 1
263 Pennisetum clandestinum Kikuyu grass 1b 1b In protected areas not listed elsewhere
265 Pennisetum setaceum Fountain grass 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
266 Pennisetum villosum Feathertop 1b
267 Pereskia aculeata Barbados gooseberry 1b 2
268 Persicaria capitata Knotweed 1b
269 Phytolacca americana American pokeweed 1b
270 Phytolacca dioica Belhambra 3
271 Phytolacca octandra Forest Inkberry 1b
272

273

274

Pinus canariensis

Pinus elliotii

Pinus halepensis

Canary pine

Slashi pine

Aleppo pine

2

2

2

1

1

1

Exempted for an existing plantation of sterile specimens
Exempted for an existing plantation 2 for plantations and wind-rows1b elsewhere
276

277

Pinus pinaster

Pinus radiata

Cluster pine

Monterey pine

2

2

1

1

Existing plantations in Western Cape are exempted from undertaking a risk assessment in terms of section 71(2) of the Act prior to applying for a permit. 2 for plantations and wind-rows1b elsewhere
277 Pinus taeda Loblolly pine 2 1 Existing plantations in Western Cape are exempted from undertaking a risk assessment in terms of section 71(2) of the Act prior to applying for a permit
 

280

 

Pistia stratiotes

 

Water lettuce

 

1b

 

1

281

282

Pittosporum crassifolium

Pittosporum undulatum

Kar0, Stiff-leaved cheesewood

Australian cheesewood

3

1b

283 Plectranthus barbatus var. grandis Woolly plectranthus 1b 1
286 Pontederia cordata Pickerel weed 1b
288 Populus x canescens Grey poplar 2
292 Psidium cattleianum Strawberry guava 1b
297 Pyracantha angustifolia Yellow firethorn 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
298 Pyracantha coccinea Red firethorn 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
303 Ricinus communis Castor oil plant 2 3
305 Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust 1b 2
306 Rosa rubiginosa Eglantine rose 1b
307

309

Rubus cuneifolius

Rubus flagellaris

American bramble

Bramble

1b

1b

310 Rubus fruticosus European blackberry 1b
313 Rumex acetosella Sheep sorrel, Red sorrel 1a Prince Edward & Marion Islands.  Widespread in CX
320 Salvinia molesta Kariba weed 1b
323 Sambucus nigra European Elderberry 1b
328 Schinus terebinthifolius Brazilian pepper tree 3 2
330 Senna didymobotrya Peanut butter cassia 1b 2
334 Senna septemtrionalis Arsenic bush, Smooth cassia 1b 1
335 Sesbania punicea Red Sesbania 1b
338

339

Solanum elaeagnifolium

Solanum mauritianum

Silver-leaf bitter apple

Bugweed

1b

1b

3

2

340 Solanum pseudocapsicum Jerusalem Cherry 1b 2
342

345

Solanum sisymbriifolium

Spartium junceum

Dense-thorned bitter apple

Spanish broom

1b

1b

1

2

346 Spathodea campanulata African flame tree 3 1 Not listed in WC, but very  toxic to bees
347 Sphagneticola trilobata Singapore daisy 3 1
355 Tamarix chinensis Chinese tamarix 1b
357 Tamarix ramosissima Pink tamarix 1b
356 Tecoma stans Yellow bells 1b
361 Tipuana tipu Tipu tree 3
366 Tradescantia fluminensis Wandering Jew 1b
367 Tradescantia zebrina Wandering Jew 1b
372 Verbena bonariensis Purple top 1b
374 Vinca major Greater periwinkle 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
375 Vinca minor Lesser periwinkle 1b Sterile cultivars not listed
378 Xanthium spinosum Spiny cocklebur 1b